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所在位置:陜西成考網(wǎng) > 復習資料 > 專(zhuān)升本 > 陜西成考專(zhuān)升本《英語(yǔ)》重要考點(diǎn)

陜西成考專(zhuān)升本《英語(yǔ)》重要考點(diǎn)

作者:葉老師

成考專(zhuān)升本《英語(yǔ)》重要考點(diǎn):

主謂一致

1.and的用法

and連接并列主語(yǔ)時(shí),謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用復數。例如:

Both he and I are right.

Mr. Black and Mrs. Black have a son called Tom.

但并列主語(yǔ)如果指的是同一人,同一事物或同一概念,謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用單數,例如:

His teacher and friend is a beautiful girl.

The poet and writer has come.

當連接的是兩個(gè)不可分的東西時(shí),謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用單數,例如:

Whisky and soda is my favorite drink.

Bread and butter is my favorite snack.

由and連接的并列主語(yǔ)中如果有each, every, no修飾時(shí),其謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞要用單數形式。例如:

Every boy and every girl has a dictionary at hand.

Each man and each woman has a dancing partner at the party.

In our country every boy and every girl has the right to receive education.

2.就近原則:

not…but…,not only … but also…,either……or,…,neither……nor…,there be…,here…

以上詞語(yǔ)連接兩個(gè)主語(yǔ)時(shí),以離動(dòng)詞最近的主語(yǔ)形式為準,如:

Either Mr. Smith or his wife and sons have to face the difficulties.

There are fourteen chairs and a whiteboard in the meeting room.

經(jīng)典試題:

One or more pages are missing.

The headmaster or I am going to hand out the papers.

3.就遠原則:

with, along with, together with, including, except, but, besides, rather than, instead of

以上詞語(yǔ)連接兩個(gè)主語(yǔ)時(shí),以離動(dòng)詞遠的主語(yǔ)形式為準,如:

The library including 5,000 books was burnt down last night.

The teacher rather than the students was wrong.

4.集合名詞:

Family, class, group, team, crew, committee,等

如以上名詞作主語(yǔ)時(shí),如果指一個(gè)整體,謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞就是單數;如果指成員時(shí),謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用復數,如:

The class is made up of 40 students.

5.單獨的動(dòng)名詞,不定式,從句,時(shí)間,金錢(qián),距離,學(xué)科,疾病,組織(專(zhuān)有名詞)做主語(yǔ)時(shí),謂語(yǔ)動(dòng)詞用單數,如;

Swimming is good for you.

Fifty dollars is too much for me.

Father gave me a dictionary as a birthday gift, which makes me excited.

Physics is really difficult for me to learn.

關(guān)系代詞

關(guān)系代詞who, which, that 的考點(diǎn):

I know the girl. The girl works in IBM.

I know the girl who / that works in IBM.

The old man is a famous artist. We visited the old man yesterday.

The old man who /that we visited yesterday is a famous artist.

The laptop is made by DELL. I bought the laptop last week.

The laptop which / that I bought last week is made by DELL.

先行詞為以下情況,關(guān)系代詞必須用that:

1.先行詞被形容詞最高修飾:

He is the hardest-working student that I have ever taught.

2.先行詞被序數詞修飾:

He is the first man that finished the work on time.

3.先行詞被only, just, the same, next等詞修飾:

This is the only dictionary that I have at hand.

4.先行詞本身為不定代詞:

Is there anything that I can do for you?

5.先行詞中既包含人又包含物:

We know nothing about the doctors and the hospitals that you are talking about.

6.正式用法中,先行詞是動(dòng)物的時(shí)候

We have to protect whales and sharks that are being threatened by death.

表示比較的方法

表示比較的方法在英語(yǔ)里是比較復雜的。除了形容詞和副詞的比較級和最高外,還有很多特定的短語(yǔ)和句型表示比較。對于這類(lèi)考題,考生需熟記公式,記清各公式中的形容詞、副詞、介詞、連詞等的搭配,以及其比較的含義。這里就??嫉囊恍┍容^形式作一個(gè)歸納。

l)平級比較:這是指在比較的過(guò)程中不用形容詞或副詞的比較級或最高進(jìn)行比較,而是用特定句型的肯定或否定式進(jìn)行比較。

as+形容詞/副詞+as(肯定式,意為:跟……一樣)

not SO(as)+形容詞/副詞+as(否定式,意為:不如)

as+形容詞+a/an+單數名詞+as

as+many/few+可數名詞+as

as much/little+不可數名詞+as

the same+名詞+as(與……一樣)

This is as interesting a book as the other is.

這本書(shū)跟另一本一樣有意思。

Helen cannot come to visit her mother so often as she hopes.

Helen不可能像她希望的那樣經(jīng)??赐赣H。

You can write as many words for your paper as you want.

你的文章想寫(xiě)多少字就寫(xiě)多少字。

She was born on the same day as I was.

她跟我在同一天出生。

2)帶有than的比較:

more than...不僅僅,不只是

more A than B與其說(shuō)是B,不如說(shuō)是A(否定B,肯定A)

rather than寧愿……而不愿……

would rather+省略to的不定式+than+省略to的不定式寧愿……而不愿……

no+形容詞比較級+than都不

He is more a businessman than a professor.

他更像是商人,不像教授。

The movie is more boring than interesting.

這部電影很乏味沒(méi)意思。

I have no more than five dollars.

我只有5美元。

He is no taller than Jack.

他并不比Jack高。(有兩個(gè)人都不高的含義)

l would rather watch TV at home than go to the cinema.

我寧愿在家看電視而不出去看電影。

She enjoys reading at home rather than travelling around.

她寧愿在家看書(shū),不愿出游。

He paid no less than 200 dollars.

他至少付了200美元。

注意:類(lèi)似的詞組有prefer A to B偏愛(ài)……勝過(guò)……(肯定A,否定B);A+not+比較級+than+B A不如B。

I prefer watching movie to TV program.

我喜歡看電影而不是看電視。

He is not taller than Jack.

他沒(méi)有Jack高。

3)其他比較句型:

The+比較級,the+比較級越……,越……

比較級and比較級越來(lái)越……

Is that true that the higher education you gain the better job you can get?

受的教育多就能找到更好的工作嗎?

Winter comes,so it gets colder and colder.

冬天來(lái)了,所以天氣越來(lái)越冷。

4)倍數的表示法:

公式:A is+倍數+名詞+of B A是B的……倍

A is+倍數+as十形容詞+as B A是B的……倍

A is+倍數+比較級+than B A比B大……

Your room is twice as big as mine.

你的房間是我的兩倍。

This street is four times the length of that ode.

這條街是那條街的四倍長(cháng)。

This bowl is twice bigger than that olle.

這個(gè)碗比那個(gè)碗大兩倍。

5)修飾比較級和最高的副詞:

修飾比較級:far,a bit,a lot,much,a great deal,rather,any,little等;

修飾最高:far,very,second,next,much,not quite,by no means等。

This room is a bit larger than that one.

這個(gè)房間比那個(gè)房間大一點(diǎn)。

I think this is the very best book I have ever read.

我認為這是我讀過(guò)的最好的書(shū)了。

例題及說(shuō)明:

例l:New typewriters cost about price of the second-hand ones.(2004)

A.three times the

B.a three times

C.the three times

D.three times a

說(shuō)明:考查倍數。答案:A?!揪渥哟笠狻啃麓蜃謾C的價(jià)格是二手貨的三倍。

例2:l like black coffee very much.The stronger it is,.(2004)

A.I like it better

B.the more I like

C.the better I like it

D.I like it more

說(shuō)明:考查比較級。答案:C。The more...,the more...越……,越……?!揪渥哟笠狻课蚁矚g不加糖也不加奶油的咖啡,而且越濃越好。

形容詞和副詞

I.要點(diǎn)

A.形容詞

1、形容詞的用法

形容詞是用來(lái)修飾、描繪名詞的,通常在句中作定語(yǔ)、表語(yǔ)或賓補,有時(shí)還可作狀語(yǔ)。如:

He is honest and hardworking.

I found the book interesting.

某些形容詞與定冠詞連用表示一類(lèi)人作主語(yǔ)時(shí),謂語(yǔ)通常用復數形式。如:

The rich and the poor live in different parts of the city.

The English like to be with their families.

多個(gè)形容詞作定語(yǔ)修飾名詞的順序:

冠詞+序數詞+基數詞+性質(zhì)狀態(tài)(描述性)+形狀大小+新舊老少+顏色+國籍+材料+名詞。如:the second five interesting big new red Chinese wall papers.

2、形容詞比較等級的形式

(1)規則形式

一般說(shuō)來(lái),單音節詞及少數雙音節詞在后加-er;--est來(lái)構成比較級和最高;其他雙音節詞及多音節詞在前加more,most.如:

great-greater-greatest

busy-busier-busiest

important-more important-(the)most important

(2)不規則形式

good(well)-better-best

bad(ill)-worse-worst

many(much)-more-most

little-less-least

(3)形容詞比較等級的用法

①表示兩者的比較,用形容詞的比較級+than.如:

He is cleverer than the other boys.

This one is more beautiful than that one.

②表示兩者以上的比較,用"the+形容詞最高(+名詞)+of(in)…"如:

He is the cleverest boy in his class.

③表示兩者是同等程度,用"as+形容詞原級+as".如:

He is as tall as I.

I have as many books as you.

④越…越…

例如:The more I learn,the happier I am.

⑤You can never be too careful.越小心越好

又如:You can never praise the teacher too highly.

你怎么贊揚這個(gè)老師也不過(guò)分。

⑥I have never spent a more worrying day.

那一天是最令我擔心的一天。

I have never had a better dinner.

這是我吃過(guò)的最好的一頓飯。

⑦M(jìn)y English is no better than yours.

我的英語(yǔ)和你的英語(yǔ)都不怎么樣。

B.副詞

1、副詞的種類(lèi)

(1)時(shí)間副詞如:ago,before,already,just,now,early,late,finally,tomorrow等

(2)地點(diǎn)副詞如:here,there,near,around,in,out,up,down,back,away,outside等。

(3)方式副詞如:carefully,angrily,badly,calmly,loudly,quickly,politely,nervously等。

(4)程度副詞如:almost,nearly,much,greatly,a bit,a little,hardly,so,very等。

2、副詞比較等級的用法

其用法與形容詞相似,只是副詞最高前可省略定冠詞。如:

Of all the boys he sings(the)most beautifully.

We must work harder.

3、某些副詞在用法上的區別

(1)already,yet,still

already表示某事物已經(jīng)發(fā)生,主要用于肯定句;yet表示期待某事發(fā)生,主要用于否定句和疑問(wèn)句;still表示某事還在進(jìn)行,主要用于肯定句和疑問(wèn)句,有時(shí)也可用于否定句。如:

We've already watched that film.

I haven't finished my homework yet.

He still works until late every night.

(2)too,as well,also,either

too,as well和also用于肯定句和疑問(wèn)句,too和as well多用于口語(yǔ),一般放在句末,而also多用于書(shū)面語(yǔ),一般放在句中與動(dòng)詞連用。either用于否定句和否定的疑問(wèn)句,往往放在句末。如:He went there too.

He didn't go there either.

I like you as well.

I also went there.

(3)hard,hardly

hardly意為"幾乎"與hard在詞義上完全不同。如:

I work hard every day.

I can hardly remember that.

(4)late,lately

lately意為"最近、近來(lái)",late意為"晚、遲"。如:

He never comes late.

Have you been to the museum lately?

例1 Tom's father thinks he is already

A high enough B tall enough

C enough high C enough tall

解析:該題正確答案是B。修飾人高用tall,而建筑物的高用high,并且enough修飾形容詞要放在形容詞后面。因此該題選B。

例2 the worse I seem to be.

A When I take more medicine

B The more medicine I take

C Taking more of the medicine

D More medicine taken

解析:該題正確答案為B。"the+形容詞比較級+…,the+形容詞比較級+…"意為越…,越…。該句意為:吃的藥越多,我的病越是加重。

例3"I haven't been to London yet".

"I haven't been there ".

A too B also C either D neither

解析:該題正確答案為C。A和B都用于肯定句中。D-neither本身意為否定"兩者都不",而C-either則用于否定句中,意為"也"。

例4 Mr Smith was moved at the news.

A deep B deeply C very deep D quite deeply

解析:該題正確答案為B。A.deep用于副詞時(shí),修飾具體的深,如dig deep,而B(niǎo)-deeply則修飾表示感情色彩的詞,如該題為deeply moved.另如deeply regret等。而D-quite和deeply均為副詞,不能互相修飾。

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